Historical Timeline


·         70 CE – Roman Emperor Titus destroys the Temple in Jerusalem

·         1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council of the Catholic Church decrees that Jews must live in separate neighborhoods

·         1394 – Jews are expelled from France and Germany, some arrive in northern Italy.

·         1492 – King Ferdinand II ("The Catholic") expels the Jews from Spain, to be followed, in 1496, by the King of Portugal; many flee to Italy.

·         1555 –  With the papal bull Cum nimis absurdum, Pope Paul IV decrees that Jews must be enclosed in ghettos, may not have more than one synagogue, are forbidden to own land, may trade only in used wares, and must wear a distinctive sign.

·         1679 – Regent Duchess Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours establishes a ghetto in Turin.

·         1723 – Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, implements the ghettoization of all Jews in Piedmont.

·         1798 – The provisional government of the Kingdom of Sardinia, established by the French, promulgates the "first emancipation": civic rights are ratified for all citizens, regardless of religious affiliation.

·         1799 – Austro-Russian armies enter Turin and restore the former restrictions.

·         1800 – Following the Battle of Marengo and the liberation of Piedmont by the French, the Jews regain civic liberties.

·         1814 – Victor Emmanuel l returns to Turin, and, with the final defeat of Napoleon, the equality of rights is again rescinded. Compulsory habitation in ghettos is reactivated.

·         1848 – With the Royal Decrees of March 29 and June 19, following the proclamation of the Albertine Statute (constitution), definitive emancipation is achieved and segregation in ghettos is ended.

·         1938 – The Racial Manifesto is promulgated and the first anti-Jewish decrees are issued.  

·         1943 – Beginning of Nazi deportations. More than 8,000 Italian Jews are imprisoned in camps. Only a few return. 

·         1948 – Birth of the State of Israel. After almost 2,000 years, Jews have the possibility of returning freely to their country of origin.


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